Esterification of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) to biodiesel using Bi-functional catalyst synthesized from waste angel wing shell (Cyrtopleura costata)

Osman Nur Syazwani, Umer Rashid, Mohd Sufri Mastuli, Yun Hin Taufiq-Yap

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

In this work, a green solid acid catalyst derived from the waste material of the angel wing shell (AWS) was synthesized using a two-step method: calcination followed by sulfonation. The calcined angel wing shell (CAWS) was supported with varied concentrations of sulphuric acid to obtain an optimum high acidity level of the catalyst. The CaO-based calcined angel wing shell sulphated (CAWS-(x)SO4) catalysts, where x = sulphuric acid concentration, were analysed using X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption of carbon dioxide and ammonia, BET surface area, and scanning electron microscope. The specific surface area, pore volume, and pore diameter of the CAWS was increased significantly after being sulphated at the optimum sulphuric acid concentration; whereas, the CAWS-(7) SO4 showed the highest total amount of acidity (4726 μmol/g). The optimal FAME conversion (98%) from the PFAD was acquired at the reaction temperature of 80 °C, 15:1 MeOH:PFAD molar ratio and 5 wt% catalyst loading for a 3 h reaction time. The CAWS-(7)SO4 catalyst was reused two times with a high FAME yield without further treatment under optimized reaction conditions. The use of the AWS for the synthesis of catalysts has enormous potential for biodiesel production from high FFA oils due to its lower production cost, abundant availability and high catalytic activity.

LanguageEnglish
Pages187-196
Number of pages10
JournalRenewable Energy
Volume131
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1 2019

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Esterification
Biodiesel
Fatty acids
Catalysts
Acids
Acidity
Sulfonation
Temperature programmed desorption
Specific surface area
Calcination
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
Ammonia
Catalyst activity
Carbon dioxide
Electron microscopes
Availability
Spectroscopy
Scanning
X ray diffraction

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment

Cite this

Esterification of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) to biodiesel using Bi-functional catalyst synthesized from waste angel wing shell (Cyrtopleura costata). / Syazwani, Osman Nur; Rashid, Umer; Mastuli, Mohd Sufri; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin.

In: Renewable Energy, Vol. 131, 01.02.2019, p. 187-196.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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