Protective effect of Centella asiatica against D-galactose and aluminium chloride induced rats: Behavioral and ultrastructural approaches

Samaila Musa Chiroma, Mohamad Taufik Hidayat Baharuldin, Che Norma Mat Taib, Zulkhairi Amom, Saravanan Jagadeesan, Mohd Ilham Adenan, Mohamad Aris Mohd Moklas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and the commonest cause of dementia among the aged people. D-galactose (D-gal) is a senescence agent, while aluminium is a known neurotoxin linked to pathogenesis of AD. The combined administration of rats with D-gal and aluminium chloride (AlCl3) is considered to be an easy and a cheap method to obtain an animal model of AD. The plant Centella asiatica (CA) is reported to exert neuroprotective effects both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, this study explored the protective effects of CA on cognition and brain ultrastructure in D-gal and AlCl3 induced rats. Materials and methods: Rats were exposed to D-gal 60 mg/kg/b.wt/day + AlCl3 200 mg/kg/b.wt/day and CA (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg/b.wt/day) and 1 mg/kg/b.wt/day of donepezil for 70 days. Different cognitive paradigms viz. T maze spontaneous alternation, modified elevated plus maze and novel object recognition test, were used to evaluate full lesions of the hippocampus, spatial learning and memory and non-spatial learning and memory respectively. Nissl's staining was used to determine the survival of hippocampus CA1 pyramidal cells, while transmission electron microscopy was used to check the ultrastructural changes. Results: The results revealed that D-gal and AlCl3 could significantly impair behavior and cognitive functions, besides causing damage to the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in rats. In addition, it also caused ultrastructural morphological alterations in rat hippocampus. Conversely, co-administration o;f CA, irrespective of the dosage used, alleviated the cognitive impairments and pathological changes in the rats comparable to donepezil. Conclusion: In conclusion the results suggest that CA could protect cognitive impairments and morphological alterations caused by D-gal and AlCl3 toxicity in rats. Biochemical and molecular studies are ongoing to elucidate the probable pharmacodynamics of CA.

LanguageEnglish
Pages853-864
Number of pages12
JournalBiomedicine and Pharmacotherapy
Volume109
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2019

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Centella
Galactose
Alzheimer Disease
Hippocampus
Pyramidal Cells
Cognition
Neurotoxins
Neuroprotective Agents
aluminum chloride
Cognitive Dysfunction
Aluminum
Transmission Electron Microscopy
Neurodegenerative Diseases
Dementia
Animal Models
Learning
Staining and Labeling
Brain

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmacology

Cite this

Protective effect of Centella asiatica against D-galactose and aluminium chloride induced rats : Behavioral and ultrastructural approaches. / Chiroma, Samaila Musa; Hidayat Baharuldin, Mohamad Taufik; Mat Taib, Che Norma; Amom, Zulkhairi; Jagadeesan, Saravanan; Adenan, Mohd Ilham; Mohd Moklas, Mohamad Aris.

In: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, Vol. 109, 01.01.2019, p. 853-864.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Chiroma, Samaila Musa ; Hidayat Baharuldin, Mohamad Taufik ; Mat Taib, Che Norma ; Amom, Zulkhairi ; Jagadeesan, Saravanan ; Adenan, Mohd Ilham ; Mohd Moklas, Mohamad Aris. / Protective effect of Centella asiatica against D-galactose and aluminium chloride induced rats : Behavioral and ultrastructural approaches. In: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy. 2019 ; Vol. 109. pp. 853-864.
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AU - Chiroma, Samaila Musa

AU - Hidayat Baharuldin, Mohamad Taufik

AU - Mat Taib, Che Norma

AU - Amom, Zulkhairi

AU - Jagadeesan, Saravanan

AU - Adenan, Mohd Ilham

AU - Mohd Moklas, Mohamad Aris

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AB - Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and the commonest cause of dementia among the aged people. D-galactose (D-gal) is a senescence agent, while aluminium is a known neurotoxin linked to pathogenesis of AD. The combined administration of rats with D-gal and aluminium chloride (AlCl3) is considered to be an easy and a cheap method to obtain an animal model of AD. The plant Centella asiatica (CA) is reported to exert neuroprotective effects both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, this study explored the protective effects of CA on cognition and brain ultrastructure in D-gal and AlCl3 induced rats. Materials and methods: Rats were exposed to D-gal 60 mg/kg/b.wt/day + AlCl3 200 mg/kg/b.wt/day and CA (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg/b.wt/day) and 1 mg/kg/b.wt/day of donepezil for 70 days. Different cognitive paradigms viz. T maze spontaneous alternation, modified elevated plus maze and novel object recognition test, were used to evaluate full lesions of the hippocampus, spatial learning and memory and non-spatial learning and memory respectively. Nissl's staining was used to determine the survival of hippocampus CA1 pyramidal cells, while transmission electron microscopy was used to check the ultrastructural changes. Results: The results revealed that D-gal and AlCl3 could significantly impair behavior and cognitive functions, besides causing damage to the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in rats. In addition, it also caused ultrastructural morphological alterations in rat hippocampus. Conversely, co-administration o;f CA, irrespective of the dosage used, alleviated the cognitive impairments and pathological changes in the rats comparable to donepezil. Conclusion: In conclusion the results suggest that CA could protect cognitive impairments and morphological alterations caused by D-gal and AlCl3 toxicity in rats. Biochemical and molecular studies are ongoing to elucidate the probable pharmacodynamics of CA.

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